This table includes data on the inclusion (or not) of variations of Ernst Haeckel’s grid of vertebrate embryos in 91 American high school and college biology textbooks published between 1907 and 1969. The column labeled “Haeckel’s Embryos” categorizes inclusion as follows: Y if yes, a variation of or reference to Haeckel’s gird is present; NH if the text includes a vertebrate embryo series, but not Haeckel’s; and N if the text does not include a developmental series.

The column titled “Source and Order” lists the illustration source and the order in which the embryos appear.

This table accompanies the article Haeckel’s Embryos in High School and College

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TitleDateHaeckels EmbryosSource and OrderAuthor(s)
Elements of Biology1907NHunter, George William
First Course in Biology*1908NBailey, L. H.; Coleman, Walter M
Applied Biology*1911Y 445 Ancestral relationships. Gill slitsCredit: From Romanes after Haeckel. Gill slits. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, hog, calf, rabbit, manBigelow, Maurice A; Bigelow, Anna N
Essentials of Biology1911NHunter, George William
Elementary Biology: Plant, Animal, Human1912NPeabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur Ellsworth
A Civic Biology1914NHunter, George William
Practical Biology*1916NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
Civic Biology*1918NHodge, Clifton F. and Dawson, Jean
Elementary Biology: An Introduction to the Science of Life1919Y 277 Recapitulation, disclaimedCredit: Gruenberg (clearly references Romanes after Haeckel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbit, manGruenberg, Benjamin C
Biology for High Schools1920NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
Biology for Beginners1921NMoon, Truman J
Civic and Economic Biology1922Y 18 Discussed 352 Gill slitsCredit: From McFarland, after Hackel (sic). Clearly from Romanes. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickAtwood, Wm. H
New Essentials of Biology1923NHunter, George William
The Biology of Man and Other Organisms1923NLinville, Henry R
Biology of Home and Community1923N Discussed 584Trafton, Gilbert H
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1924NClement, Arthur G
Biology and Human Welfare1924NPeabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur Ellsworth
New Biology1924NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1925NClement, Arthur G
Biology and Human Life1925NGruenberg, Benjamin C
New Civic Biology1926NHunter, George William
An Introduction to Biology1926N Discusses recapitulationKinsey, Alfred C
Biology for Beginners1926NMoon, Truman J
Modern Biology: Its Human Aspects1926NWaggoner, Harry Dwight
Biology1927Y 270 Classification, RecapitulationCredit: Hackel (sic). Clearly from Romanes. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickAtwood, Wm. H
New General Biology1929NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
Advanced Biology1929Y 388 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, chick, pig, rabbit, humanWheat, Frank M.; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth T
Problems in Biology1931NHunter, George William
Essential of Biology1931NMeier, W. H. D; Meier, Lois
Dynamic Biology1933NBaker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis H
New Introduction to Biology1933NKinsey, Alfred C
The Living World1933NMank, Helen Gardner
Biology for Beginners1933Y 450 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B
Biology for Today1934Y 589 Reproduction, relationshipsCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbitCurtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina Henry
New Biology1934NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
Biology1935NH 428 EvolutionOriginal. Single generalized stage II illustration showing "gill slits"Fitzpatrick, Frederick L; Horton, Ralph E
Our World of Living Things1936NHeiss, Elwood D; Osborn, Ellsworth S; Manzer, J. Gordon
Everyday Problems in Biology1936Y 429 Kinship / ClassificationUncredited. 4 stage II illustrations only. Turtle, chick, pig, rabbitPieper, Charles J; Beauchamp, Wilber L; Frank, Orlin D
New Biology1937NSmallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A
New Introduction to Biology1938NKinsey, Alfred C
Adventure with Living Things1938NKroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1938Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B
Exploring Biology1938NSmith, Ella Thea
A Biology of Familiar Things1939NBush, George L; Dickie, Allan; Rukle, Ronald C
Living Things and You1940Y 455 Undercuts recapit by botany analogyUncredited. 5 stage I illustrations. Fish, salamander, tortoise, chick, calfDowning, Elliot R; McAtee, Veva M
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1941Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B
Biology and Human Affairs1941Y 135 RecapitulationUncredited. Appears to be a poor or simplified copy of Gruenberg 1919. Fish, tortoise, chick, pigRitchie, John W
Science of Living Things1941NClinton, Weymouth G
Dynamic Biology Today1943NBaker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis H
Everyday Biology1943Y 574 ReproductionCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, dog, rabbitCurtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina Henry
Exploring Biology1943NSmith, Ella Thea
Biology and Man1944Y 459 EvolutionCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbitGruenberg, Benjamin C; Bingham, N. Eldred
Biology for Better Living1946NBayles, Ernest E; Burnett, R. Will
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1946Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B
Biology for You1946NVance, B. B; Miller, D. F
Modern Biology1947Y 626 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James H
Biology and Human Affairs1948Y 63 UnityUncredited. Appears to be a poor or simplified copy of Gruenberg 1919. Fish, tortoise, chick, pigRitchie, John W
Elements of Biology1948H (barely) 535 RecapitulationThough not Haeckel's grid, in fact includes just one Haeckel-like embryo, the text presentes a very Haeckelian view of evolution and recapitulation. Claims, "embryology repeats phylogeny." (535)Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A
Exploring Biology1949Y 405 ReproductionAmerican Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Haeckel). Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickSmith, Ella Thea
Adventures with Animals and Plants1950NH 549 EvolutionOriginal illustration. Includes yolk sacs. 2 separte sets. Stage I and Stage II and III. Very different one from the other. Fish, frog, turtle, chick, pig, man. (Compare to Hunter and Hunter, College Zoology, 1949).Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H
Modern Biology1951Y 659 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James H
Elements of Biology1952H (barely) 619 RecapitulationThough not Haeckel's grid, in fact includes just one Haeckel-like embryo, the text presentes a very Haeckelian view of evolution and recapitulation. Claims, "embryology repeats phylogeny." (619)Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A (lead author)
Basic Biology for High Schools1953NFenton, Carroll Lane; Kamby, Paul E
Exploring Biology1954Y 466 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Haeckel). Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickSmith, Ella Thea
Biology in Daily Life1955Y 460 ReproductionUncredited. Very poorly redrawn Haeckel. Fish, turtle, chicken, calf, hog, rabbitCurtis, Francis D; Urban, John
Biology in Our Lives1955Y 414 Evolution - first and only in HunterUncredited. Redrawn Haeckel. Fish, salamander, turtle, bird, pigHunter, George W; Hunter, F. R
Modern Biology1956Y 664 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James H
Biology1957NH 482 EvolutionOriginal. Includes yoke sacks. 2 separte sets. Stage I and Stage II and III. Very different one from the other. Fish, frog, turtle, chick, pig, man. (Compare to Hunter and Hunter, College Zoology, 1949).Krober, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H; Weaver, Richard L
Biology for You1958NVance, B. B; Miller, D. F
Biology : The Living World1958Y 551 DevelopmentUncredited. Very poorly redrawn Haeckel. Fish, turtle, chicken, calf, hog, rabbitCurtis, Francis D; Urban, John
New Dynamic Biology1959Y 444 Single illus. RecapitulationSingle stage II pig. Identifies "gill slits, or clefts"Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis H; Tanczos Jr., Julius
Exploring Biology1959NSmith, Ella Thea
Modern Biology1960Y 663 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Otto, James H; Towle, Albert
Your Biology1962NSmith, Ella Thea; Lisonbee, Lorenzo
BSCS "Green Version" aka Biological Science: An Ecological Approach1963NH 578 Adaptation, notes drawings are not on the same scaleOriginal."Green" and "Blue" identical. Most extensive grid (7 x 7) of any biology textbook. Updated and differentiated. Includes yolk sacs. Shark, lungfish, salamander, lizard, chicken, chimpanzee, manBates, Marston; Kolb, Haven C (Supervisors)
BSCS "Blue Version" aka Biological Science: Molecules to Man1963NH 307 Development, not disclaimed as in "yellow"Original."Green" and "Blue" identical. Most extensive grid (7 x 7) of any biology textbook. Updated and differentiated. Includes yolk sacs. Shark, lungfish, salamander, lizard, chicken, chimpanzee, manDeyrup, Ingrith; Welch, Claude (Supervisors)
Modern Biology1963Y 663 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigMoon, Truman J; Otto, James H; Towle, Albert
BSCS "Yellow Version" aka Biological Science: An Inquiry Into Life1963NH 609 EvolutionOriginal. Updated, detailed and carefully drawn. Recapitulatilon disclaimed and undermined. Introduces 2 new "pre-stages," egg and bastula and a "post-stage," adult. Man, pig, salamander, chickenMoore, John A (Supervisor); Glass, Bentley (Co-supervisor, though not credited as such)
Biology1965NH 482 EvolutionOriginal. Includes yoke sacks. 2 separte sets. Stage I and Stage II and III. Very different one from the other. Fish, frog, turtle, chick, pig, man. (Compare to Hunter and Hunter, College Zoology, 1949).Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H; Weaver, Richard L
Modern Biology1965Y 186 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigOtto, James H; Towle, Albert
Exploring Biology1966NSmith, Ella Thea; Lawrence, Thomas Gordon
BSCS "Yellow Version" aka Biological Science: An Inquiry Into Life1968NH 584 Carefully redrawn. Uses photos to illustrate man (485)Dimensionalized versions of BSCS "Yellow Version" 1963Moore, John A (Supervisor)
Modern Biology1969NH 187 Evolution w 'man'Reference not clear. Fish, bird, manOtto, James H; Towle, Albert

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