TitleDateAuthor(s)PublisherTypeEugenics 0-5
Elements of Biology1907Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkPhylogenetic0
Applied Biology1911Bigelow, Maurice A; Bigelow, Anna NMacmillan, New YorkUnity of Life0
Essentials of Biology1911Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkPhylogenetic1 Domestication and selective breeding introduced at end of Zoology section.
Elementary Biology: Plant, Animal, Human1912Peabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur EllsworthMacmillan, New YorkPhylogenetic0
A Civic Biology1914Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkEconomic4 Strongly eugenic, refers to the "feeble-minded" as parasites, that "blood tells," that there are clearly good families and bad families, and regarding bad families, save for our "humanity" we would "kill them off to prevent them from spreading" (263). However, conclusion less doctrinaire.
Practical Biology1916Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic0
Civic Biology1918Hodge, Clifton F. and Dawson, JeanGinn, BostonEconomic4 Strongly eugenic. Directly links evolution to eugenics and boldly promotes the critical need to prevent the "feeble-minded" – 1 in 30 Americans, according to the authors – from reproducing (344-45).
Elementary Biology: An Introduction to the Science of Life1919Gruenberg, Benjamin CGinn, BostonUnity of Life1 Very mildly eugenic.
Biology for High Schools1920Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic1 Mildly suggests students "take care" in selecting mates so that the inherited tendency toward "industry and thrift" are passed on to children.
Biology for Beginners1921Moon, Truman JHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic1 Implies racial progress.
Civic and Economic Biology1922Atwood, Wm. HP. Blakiston's, Philadelphia Economic5 Harshly eugenic. Contains the most shocking defense, summed up by this quote: "One of the reasons why Greece, Rome, and the other great nations of antiquity perished is that they violated the principles of eugenics. If our nation is to live its people must be of the best, and their blood must not be contaminated by that of the unfit. What is your state doing to improve the next generation?" (337).
New Essentials of Biology1923Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkPhylogenetic1 Identical to Hunter 1911.
The Biology of Man and Other Organisms1923Linville, Henry RHarcourt, New YorkNormative4 Strongly eugenic in its demands for "social control of inheritance" (178), though structure mitigates narrative force, climaxing with calls for correct posture, exercise and proper diet.
Biology of Home and Community1923Trafton, Gilbert HMacmillan, New YorkEconomic0 No eugenics, despite focus on domestication and species improvement.
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1924Clement, Arthur GIroquois Publishing Co, Syracuse, NYEconomic4 Eugenics serves as closing statement, after plant and animal breeding. Talks of hard costs to society of bad heredity: Jukes and Kallikaks.
Biology and Human Welfare1924Peabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur EllsworthMacmillan, New YorkEconomic5 Harshly prescriptive. Heritage and habits of equal importance.
New Biology1924Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic2 Text is generally descriptive not prescriptive. Little or no content on habits, posture, mate selection, trade selection.
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1925Clement, Arthur GIroquois Publishing Co, Syracuse, NYEconomic4 Eugenics serves as closing statement, after plant and animal breeding. Talks of hard costs to society of bad heredity: Jukes and Kallikaks.
Biology and Human Life1925Gruenberg, Benjamin CGinn, BostonEconomic4 Suggests intelligent control of reproduction via enlightened institutionalization is the only path to more advanced civilization.
New Civic Biology1926Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkEconomic5 Harshly eugenic and deterministic. "Our knowledge of heredity" underscored promotion of natural personal limits - with students suited for the professions, commercial life or the trades relative to their inborn traits (402).
An Introduction to Biology1926Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoUnity of Life2 Asks students in one exercise to find stories on Jukes, Kallikaks, Darwin and Edwards families. Does not index eugenics, but has a deterministic thrust. "There are really very few of us who have the necessary heredities to make good Presidents of the United States" (174).
Biology for Beginners1926Moon, Truman JHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic1 Implies racial progress, but does not cover eugenic language.
Modern Biology: Its Human Aspects1926Waggoner, Harry DwightD. C. Heath, BostonPhylogenetic / Unity of Life hybrid4 Harsh, though typical for the decade ... comparable to Atwood (1927). Quote: "A high class human family can retain its excellence only so long as the marriages of its members are with individuals of the same type. Marriages with lower types can result only in a deterioration in the sum total of desirable family qualities" (347).
Biology1927Atwood, Wm. HP. Blakiston's, Philadelphia Economic4 Less harsh than Atwood 1922. However, eugenics presented as a climax to the text and a key focus of biology.
New General Biology1929Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic2 Nearly identical to Smallwood 1924.
Problems in Biology1931Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkEconomic4 Retains all the harsh language of Hunter 1926, but argument no longer as clearly presented.
Essentials of Biology1931Meier, W. H. D; Meier, LoisGinn, BostonPhylogenetic2 Though it closes with eugenics, the text contains no supporting argument.
Dynamic Biology1933Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis HRand McNally, New YorkNormative (weakly)3 Standard 1930s presentation comparing Juke and Kallikak families with Edwards family. Warns of close intermarriages and immigrants of "defective stock" (655).
New Introduction to Biology1933Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoUnity of Life2 Does not index eugenics. Retains Juke etc. exercise and deterministic tone of Kinsey 1926.
The Living World1933Mank, Helen GardnerBenj. H. Sanborn & Co, ChicagoUnity of Life / Health0
Biology for Beginners1933Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic3 Introduces genetics and eugenics, including H. H. Goddard's Kallikak study.
Biology for Today1934Curtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina HenryGinn, BostonUnity of Life2 Strong pitch for eugenic awareness closes text, but avoids harsher prescriptions of many earlier and most competitors.
New Biology1934Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach.
Biology1935Fitzpatrick, Frederick L; Horton, Ralph EHoughton Mifflin, BostonEconomic4 Proudly eugenic. Closes on the topic. However, remains strictly economic, not normative, throughout.
Our World of Living Things1936Heiss, Elwood D; Osborn, Ellsworth S; Manzer, J. GordonWebster Publishing Company, St. Louis, MOUnity of Life / Health4 Unapologetically progressionist, calmly eugenic: "All available data indicate that intelligence is determined by the genes which a person inherits" (173).
Everyday Problems in Biology1936Pieper, Charles J; Beauchamp, Wilber L; Frank, Orlin DScott, Foresman and Company, ChicagoUnity of Life / Economic3 Advocates limits on immigration and reproduction of feeble-minded, balanced by environment and education defense.
New Biology1937Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach.
New Introduction to Biology1938Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoUnity of Life2 Identical to Kinsey 1926, 1933.
Adventure with Living Things1938Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter HD. C. Heath, BostonPhylogenetic / Unity of Life hybrid1 Quite similar to Smith 1938. Indexes and gives lengthy treatment to the topic, only to rebut and disclaim.
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1938Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.
Exploring Biology1938Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life2 Eugenics described at length. Pitched as perhaps unarguable for the 'feeble-minded.' But highly disclaimed.
A Biology of Familiar Things1939Bush, George L; Dickie, Allan; Rukle, Ronald CAmerican Book Company, New YorkNormative3 Moderately eugenic, sums the social cost of feebleminded at $100,000,000. Mostly suggestive regarding mate selection.
Living Things and You1940Downing, Elliot R; McAtee, Veva MLyons and Carnahan, ChicagoNormative3 Unapologetic in its presentation, though suggests that legislative solutions are not the answer, that "individuals who are taught the laws of sex and of inheritance will, it is hoped, act with discretion" (505).
Science of Living Things1941Clinton, Weymouth GHolt, New YorkUnity of Life2 Closes with eugenics (Kallikak and Edwards families compared), but topic burried, tacked on after lawn care, flower gardens and grafting.
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1941Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.
Biology and Human Affairs1941Ritchie, John WWorld Book Company, Yonkers-On-HudsonNormative4 Disclaims "negative eugenics," but strongly promotes "positive eugenics" (699). Normative, and by definition, deterministic.
Dynamic Biology Today1943Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis HRand McNally, New YorkNormative3 Quite similar to Baker 1933, though somewhat demoted; eugenics no longer on par with genetics, ecology, pathology, etc. (compare p. 56, 1933 with p. 46, 1943).
Everyday Biology1943Curtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina HenryGinn, BostonUnity of Life2 Identical to Curtis 1934.
Exploring Biology1943Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life1 Eugenics described but immediately disclaimed: "Let us see what is wrong with the program that aims to improve mankind by 'breeding from the best families'" (513).
Biology and Man1944Gruenberg, Benjamin C; Bingham, N. EldredGinn, BostonUnity of Life0 Gruenberg is first author to drop eugenics completely after once advancing the idea.
Biology for Better Living1946Bayles, Ernest E; Burnett, R. WillSilver Burdett Company, New YorkNormative1 Mostly anti-eugenic. Takes a stand against Juke/Kallikak "bad heredity" story. Further reading references in conflict.
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1946Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.
Biology for You1946Vance, B. B; Miller, D. FLippincott, ChicagoNormative1 Text mentions eugenics, but disclaims effectiveness.
Modern Biology1947Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic4 Expands discussion of eugenics as "genetics applied to human inheritance" (606), and reinforces importance by using the topic to eugenics heredity and breeding to evolution. Kallikak study remains.
Biology and Human Affairs1948Ritchie, John WWorld Book Company, Yonkers-On-HudsonNormative4 Identical to Ritchie 1941 (598-99).
Elements of Biology1948Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A Allyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach. Eugenics sandwiched between "maturity" and "decline" and "the end," linking individual development with species history.
Exploring Biology1949Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life1 Eugenics defined by just one paragraph, though unlike previous editions, not disclaimed.
Adventures with Animals and Plants1950Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter HD. C. Heath, BostonUnity of Life1 As in 1938, eugenics introduced and rebutted.
Modern Biology1951Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic4 Text identical to Moon 1947, Kallikak study intact.
Elements of Biology1952Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A (lead author)Allyn and Bacon, BostonPhylogenetic3 Jukes, Kallikaks, Edwards, Darwins and Bachs all present. In 1952!
Basic Biology for High Schools1953Fenton, Carroll Lane; Kamby, Paul EMacmillan, New YorkUnity of Life0
Exploring Biology1954Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life2 Eugenics defined. Further readings suggested. "Value" pitched, but possibility of near-term application dismissed. Several sections end with statements claiming understanding "may enable man to take a hand in directing "the future course of evolution" (482).
Biology in Daily Life1955Curtis, Francis D; Urban, JohnGinn, BostonUnity of Life3 Though content similar to Curtis 1943, and contains a notable pitch for racial equality (503), class differences strongly implied (498-505).
Biology in Our Lives1955Hunter, George W; Hunter, F. RAmerican Book Company, New YorkNormative4 Highly deterministic. Torn on the topic of eugenics (448-450). On one hand eugenics "is entirely contrary to the social and moral codes of democracy." On the other hand, places the cost to society of the "various classes of defective people" at $3,000,000,000.
Modern Biology1956Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic4 Text retains strong presentation of eugenics, though finally drops Kallikak study.
Biology1957Krober, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H; Weaver, Richard LD. C. Heath, BostonUnity of Life1 Mere mention of genes and environment.
Biology : The Living World1958Curtis, Francis D; Urban, JohnGinn, BostonUnity of Life3 Relevant text (590-596) nearly identical to Curtis 1955 (1949, 1953).
Biology for You1958Vance, B. B; Miller, D. FLippincott, ChicagoNormative0 Eugenics indexed, but not actually included in text.
New Dynamic Biology1959Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis H; Tanczos Jr., JuliusRand McNally, New YorkNormative2 Quite similar to Baker 1933 and 1943. Drops warnings about immigrants, shifts to global concerns - population explosion. However, anti-racist and pro-nurture/environment.
Exploring Biology1959Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life0 Eugenics gone from text along with all claims to value of human control of evolution.
Modern Biology1960Moon, Truman J; Otto, James H; Towle, AlbertHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic4 Text retains 1956 presentation of eugenics.
Your Biology1962Smith, Ella Thea; Lisonbee, LorenzoHarcourt, New YorkNormative0
BSCS "Green Version" aka Biological Science: An Ecological Approach1963Bates, Marston; Kolb, Haven C (Supervisors)Rand McNally, New YorkUnity of Life0 Text is non-progressionist. Almost hostile to humans.
BSCS "Blue Version" aka Biological Science: Molecules to Man1963Deyrup, Ingrith; Welch, Claude (Supervisors)Houghton Mifflin, BostonUnity of Life1 No mention of eugenics, and text not specifically deterministic. However, discussion of "population genetics" mixed with mutation, radiation and Muller studies. Weak tea, relatively, but suggests it is important for biologists to measure changes in gene frequencies in populations over time.
Modern Biology1963Moon, Truman J; Otto, James H; Towle, AlbertHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic4 Text retains 1956 presentation of eugenics. Last popular US textbook to feature topic.
BSCS "Yellow Version" aka Biological Science: An Inquiry Into Life1963Moore, John A (Supervisor); Glass, Bentley (Co-supervisor, though not credited as such)Harcourt, New YorkNormative3 Eugenics, far out of fashion, not mentioned but present like a spirit in the text. Glass, supervisor and director, was a strong reform eugenicist, and felt strongly that the human species would need to continue to evolve - progressively - by setting cultural conditions favorable to the task. Influenced by Frederick Osborn and Hermann Muller.
Biology1965Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter H; Weaver, Richard LD. C. Heath, BostonUnity of Life1 Mere mention of genes and environment.
Modern Biology1965Otto, James H; Towle, AlbertHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic2 The word eugenics finally disappears from main text, but much of the content remains under the label "population biology."
Exploring Biology1966Smith, Ella Thea; Lawrence, Thomas GordonHarcourt, New YorkUnity of Life0 No eugenics. Though warns of threat of "overpopulation by man" (692).
BSCS "Yellow Version" aka Biological Science: An Inquiry Into Life1968Moore, John A (Supervisor)Harcourt, New YorkNormative2 Cultural evolution, and the conditions necessary to ensure continued progress, present, but unlike 1963, not climax of text. Glass influence lightened. Implied racial proof of evolution surprisingly strong.
Modern Biology1969Otto, James H; Towle, AlbertHolt, New YorkPhylogenetic2 Identical to Otto 1965. Eugenics not in text, yet remains in glossary.

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